Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common reason of chronic liver disease. NAFLD causes a wide array of liver conditions ranging from simple steatosis to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and advanced hepatic fibrosis. Pathogenesis of NAFLD is not entirely understood, but it is well-known that obesity, diabetes and metabolic abnormalities played a significant role in the disease development and progression. Epigenetics is known as an inheritable phenomenon which influences the expression of gene without altering the DNA sequence, offers a new perspective on the pathogenesis of NAFLD. Moreover, epigenetic mechanisms including DNA methylation, posttranslational histone modifications and non-coding RNAs seem to orchestrate various aspects of NAFLD. The present review reflects new advances in knowledge of epigenetic programming in the context of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, which is paving the new strategy to discovery of epigenetic biomarker, therapeutic targets and long-awaited diagnostic as well as prognostic tools.
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