Epigenetics is defined as heritable changes in gene expression without changing the base-sequence of the genome, ultimately altering cell differentiation, phenotype, and function. Epigenetic modifications can take place in chromosomal deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) or in the proteins linked with the chromosomal DNA such as histones, and have been grouped into 4 main categories: DNA methylation, histone modification, small and non-coding RNAs, and chromatin remodeling. In recent years, many epigenetic proteins have been experimentally and clinically investigated, whereas strategies for modifying the epigenetic ‘machinery’ have been the frontier for discovering a ‘cure’ for chronic ailments. Gene-environment interaction is the most plausible answer.
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